End-stage COPD, or stage 4, is the final stage of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Most people get it after years of living with the disease and lung damage it causes. As a result, their quality of life is low. You'll have frequent flare-ups or flare-ups, one of which could be fatal.
BODE takes an overview of how COPD affects your life. While some doctors use the BODE index, its value may decrease as researchers learn more about the disease. This refers to FEV1, as in the GOLD system. Read on to learn about ways to relieve symptoms of end-stage COPD and the factors that influence your prognosis if you have this difficult condition.
Groups are defined by the severity of problems such as dyspnea, fatigue and interference with daily life, as well as acute exacerbations. People with a Stage 4, Group D label have the most serious outlook. In the terminal stage of COPD, you may need supplemental oxygen to breathe, and you may not be able to complete the activities of daily living without getting too windy and tired. Sudden worsening of COPD at this stage can be life-threatening.
With age, COPD will progress in severity and the prognosis tends to worsen over the years, especially in older people. The exact amount of time you can live with COPD depends on your age, health, and symptoms. Especially if your COPD is diagnosed early, if you have mild stage COPD, and your disease is well managed and controlled, you may be able to live 10 or even 20 years after diagnosis. For example, one study found that people who were diagnosed with mild stage COPD, or GOLD stage 1, did not have a shorter life expectancy than healthy people.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic, progressive lung disease that is not curable. Medical treatments can slow the progression of the disease and improve quality of life. Mannino and his colleagues4 analyzed data from the First National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES I), using a modified version of the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (GOLD) criteria for COPD and other respiratory diseases in that population. The authors reported the relative risks (RR) of all-cause mortality for COPD based on multivariable models that controlled smoking status, the history of the annual package, the years since they last smoked regularly, the body mass index (BMI) and a number of demographic variables.
The RRs ranged from 1.2 for mild COPD to 1.7 for severe COPD. Some other studies also reported RRs based on severity, 2,7,15,16 However, as far as we know, no studies have reported life expectancy in COPD or years of life lost. FEV1 is a strong predictor of survival in people with COPD. People with severe airway obstruction who receive long-term oxygen therapy have low survival rates (approximately 70% through the first year, 50% through the second year, and 43% through the third year).
There are many treatment options available to help a person with end-stage COPD cope with the pain and discomfort associated with the condition. In summary, years of life lost due to stage 2, 3 or 4 COPD are significant in current and former smokers, and modest in non-smokers and those with stage 1 COPD. In later stages, a person with COPD may rely heavily on family or friends to help with their daily activities. Pulmonary function tests classified patients with COPD or restriction as stage 0, 1, 2, 3 or 4 of the Global Initiative on Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (GOLD).
Former smokers lose 0.5 years from smoking, an additional 1.4 years to stage 2 COPD, and an additional 5.6 years to stage 3 or 4 COPD, compared to otherwise similar people who do not have lung disease. For example, among current smokers, the EDR for stage 3 or 4 COPD compared to mild COPD is 0.0601 − 0.0109 %3D 0.0492, while for those who never smoke it is only 0.0010 − (−0.007 %3D) 0.0087.Although supplemental oxygen and COPD medications may help, they may not be as helpful as they were in the early stages. Therefore, the EDR over the 10-year period for smokers with stage 1 COPD, compared to smokers without lung disease, is 0.0462 − 0.0288% 3D 0.0174.Quitting smoking may have a positive effect on your life expectancy if you are a smoker and have COPD. People who had a positive response to (a) having a cough for three consecutive months out of the year, (b) phlegm in the early morning three consecutive months a year, or (c) wheezing in the past 12 months were considered to have GOLD stage 0 if their lung function tests did not indicate COPD or RLD.
While there are no strict rules governing how long a person can live with COPD, a system called the BODE Index has been developed to help with predictions. As with any serious illness, such as COPD or cancer, the likely life expectancy is largely based on the severity or stage of the disease. For example, among smokers, the probability of 10-year survival for people without lung disease was 75%, compared to 65% for people with COPD symptoms, 63% for stage 1, 58% for stage 2, and approximately 15% for stage 3 or 4. .