Numbers vary in different regions of the world. Cape Town, South Africa, has the highest prevalence, affecting 22.2% of men and 16.7% of women. Hanover, Germany, on the other hand, has the lowest prevalence, of 8.6% for men and 3.7% for women. COPD is a common, preventable and treatable chronic lung disease that affects men and women around the world.
Our study has a number of limitations. Although we identified a significant number of studies for this review, they were not distributed proportionally across WHO regions, nor were sample sizes from regions proportional to regional populations. More than 46% of data points came from the European region, which means that overall results may over-represent the burden of COPD in Europe. On the other hand, the Africa region (4 per cent), the Southeast Asia region (4 per cent) and the Eastern Mediterranean region (5 per cent) are heavily underrepresented, highlighting the lack of good-quality prevalence data outside high-income countries.
Meanwhile, it is worth noting that most of the studies (83%) included in this review were published after 2000 and, encouraging, the number of epidemiological studies focusing on COPD has been steadily increasing over the past two decades. This upward trend provides an indication of increased awareness and recognition of COPD as a growing global health burden, and the need to strengthen the research base and improve and standardize methods. Tobacco is a legal drug that is currently responsible for the deaths of approximately six million people worldwide each year, and many of these deaths occur prematurely. Smoking is associated with morbidity and mortality from non-communicable respiratory diseases (NCDs), including an estimated 600,000 people who die each year from the effects of second-hand smoke.
A 1-hour hookah session with shisha tobacco is equivalent to smoking more than 100 cigarettes. Overdiagnosis was defined as those that were labeled as COPD but without the associated symptoms of COPD or evidence of AFO or symptoms of other diseases labeled as COPD. Many NCDs occur together in the context of multimorbidity, but despite this initiative, COPD remains a growing but neglected global epidemic. During flare-ups, people with COPD see their symptoms get much worse; they may need additional treatment at home or be hospitalized for emergency care.
As COPD progresses, people find it more difficult to carry out their normal daily activities, often because of difficulty breathing. Therefore, exposure to biomass fuel, particularly in non-smoking women in rural areas, may be underestimated as a risk factor for COPD and may lead to insufficient diagnosis. Regular calibration of the spirometer is recommended, as failure to do so may lead to insufficient or excessive diagnosis of COPD. Hospital admission rates for COPD are available for 31 European countries, with most data coming from Western Europe.
Awareness campaigns and health programmes have the potential to revolutionize the diagnosis and treatment of COPD and COPD exacerbations, improving the quality of life and the cost and burden of health services. The prevalence of COPD in China in population-based surveys ranges from 3.9% to 13.7% in different regions of China. According to the results of spirometry (15% of patients), they reported that 71.4% of patients were underdiagnosed with COPD and 14.6% were overdiagnosed. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major chronic disease, highly prevalent in the aging population exposed to tobacco smoke and airborne pollutants, and is currently the fourth leading cause of morbidity and death worldwide, accounting for about 3 million deaths in the world.
the whole world. Underdiagnosis was defined as those individuals with or without symptoms and chronic airflow obstruction (AFO) who had not yet been diagnosed with COPD or those with the presence of other comorbidities, but symptoms common to COPD incorrectly labeled for another disease. The counties with the highest model-based estimates of COPD prevalence were clustered along the Ohio and Lower Rivers. We developed an epidemiological model of meta-regression and applied it to crude COPD prevalence rates.
The American Lung Association (ALA) believes that there may be up to 24 million American adults living with COPD. . .